Automotive brake fluid has many responsibilities.
Corrosion protection and lubrication of brake system components are only a
portion of the role brake fluid must play.
- Single Source responsibility for complete plant design right from
Civil-Mechanical-Electrical to Chemical process.
- Client's scope of work limited to bare minimum.
- Know how and training based on years of manufacturing experience.
- Modern Laboratory set up to meet international specifications.
- Plant design complies with international standards and safety
- Reduced manpower requirement.
Recommended Raw Materials
- Heating Vessel
- Mixing Vessel
- Resin Filter With Pump
- Transfer Pump
- Filling Machine
- Lab Equipment
About Brake Fluids :
- Colour Oilred Microfine
- Para Phenylene Diamine
Automotive brake fluid has many responsibilities. Corrosion protection and
lubrication of brake system components are only a portion of the role brake
fluid must play.
All automobiles that have a hydraulic braking system must use brake fluid
in order for the brake system to operate. The type of fluid used can depend
on the type of vehicle and the demands of the vehicles brake system. The two
most common brake fluids used in the automotive industry are fluids that
contain Polyalkylene Glycol Ether and fluid that contains Silicone or
Silicium-based Polymer. Both Fluids are common but very different in regards
to the manner in which they perform. Fluids containing Polyalklene Glycol
Ether are more widely used and are the only fluids that should be used in
racing brake systems. Because brake systems may reach extreme temperatures
brake fluid must have the ability to withstand these temperatures and not
Silicone Based Fluid
Fluids containing Silicone are generally used in military type vehicles and
because Silicone based fluids will not damage painted surfaces they are also
somewhat common in show cars.
Silicone-based fluids are regarded as DOT 5 fluids. They are highly
compressible and can give the driver a feeling of a spongy pedal. The higher
the brake system temperature the more the compressibility of the fluid and
this increases the feeling of a spongy pedal.
Silicone based fluids are non-hydroscopic meaning that they will not absorb
or mix with water. When water is present in the brake system it will create
a water/fluid/water/fluid situation. Because water boils at approximately
212º F, the ability of the brake system to operate correctly decreases,
and the steam created from boiling water adds air to the system. It is
important to remember that water may be present in any brake system.
Therefore silicone brake fluid lacks the ability to deal with moisture and
will dramatically decrease a brake systems performance.
Polyglycolether Based Fluids
Fluids containing Poly Glycol ethers are regarded as DOT 3, 4, and DOT 5.1.
These type fluids are Hydroscopic meaning they have an ability to mix with
water and still perform adequately. However, water will drastically reduce
the boiling point of fluid. In a passenger car this is not an issue. In a
race car it is a major issue because as the boiling point decreases the
performance ability of the fluid also decreases.
Poly glycol type fluids are 2 times less compressible than silicone type
fluids, even when heated. Less compressibility of brake fluid will increase
pedal feel. Changing fluid on a regular basis will greatly increase the
performance of the brake system.
Fluid Specifications :
All brake fluids must meet federal standard
#116. Under this standard is three Department of Transportation (DOT)
minimal specifications for brake fluid. They are DOT 3, DOT 4, and DOT 5.1
(for fluids based with Polyalkylene Glycol Ether) and DOT 5 (for Silicone
MINIMAL boiling points for these specifications are as follows :
||Dry Boiling Point
||Wet Boiling Point
Racing brake fluids always exceeds the DOT specifications for dry boiling
points. Wet boiling points generally remain the same.
WET VS. DRY Boiling Point
The term boiling point when used regarding brake fluid means the
temperatures that brake fluid will begin to boil.
WET Boiling Point
The minimum temperatures that brake fluids will begin to boil when the
brake system contains 3% water by volume of the system.
DRY Boiling Point
The temperatures that brake fluid will boil with no water present in the
Moisture In The Brake System
Water/moisture can be found in nearly all brake systems. Moisture enters
the brake system in several ways. One of the more common ways is from using
old or pre-opened fluid. Keep in mind, that brake fluid draws in moisture
from the surrounding air. Tightly sealing brake fluid bottles and not
storing them for long periods of time will help keep moisture out. When
changing or bleeding brake fluid always replace master cylinder caps as soon
as possible to prevent moisture from entering into the master cylinder.
Condensation, (small moisture droplets) can form in lines and calipers. As
caliper and line temperatures heat up and then cool repeatedly, condensation
occurs, leaving behind an increase in moisture/water. Over time the moisture
becomes trapped in the internal sections of calipers, lines, master
cylinders, etc. When this water reaches 212º F the water turns to
steam. Many times air in the brake system is a result of water that has
turned to steam. The build up of steam will create air pressure in the
system, sometimes to the point that enough pressure is created to push
caliper pistons into the brake pad. This will create brake drag as the rotor
and pads make contact and can also create more heat in the system. Diffusion
is another way in that water/moisture may enter the system.
Diffusion occurs when over time moisture enters through rubber brake hoses.
The use of hoses made from EPDM materials
(Ethlene-Propylene-Diene-Materials) will reduce the amount of diffusion OR
use steel braided brake hose with a non-rubber sleeve (usually Teflon) to
greatly reduce the diffusion process.
Things To Remember :
Recommended Raw Materials :
- Brake fluids dry boiling point is more important then wet boiling
point when used in a racing brake system.
- Passenger cars very rarely will undergo a brake fluid change making
the wet boiling point more important.
- Racing brake system fluid is changed often and a system with fresh
fluid will most likely not contain water. Because of this, racers should
be concerned with the dry boiling point. Racing fluid exceeds DOT 3, 4,
and 5.1 dry boiling point specifications.
- Never use silicone based fluids in racing brake systems.
- Using racing brake fluid will increase performance of the braking
- Never reuse fluid. º Never mix types or brands of brake fluid.
- Use smaller fluid containers that can be used quicker.
- If fluid remains in container be sure to tightly seal and do not
store for long periods of time.
- Purge system (complete drain) and replace fluid often.
- Immediately replace master cylinder reservoir cap following any
Brief Manufacturing Process :
- Colour Oilred Microfine
- Para Phenylene Diamine
All raw materials from 2 to 7 have to first be dissolved in MEG slowly.
This is done by first transferring small quantities of say 100 ltrs MEG with
Sodium Benzoate in the heating vessel and heating upto 90-100C.Once the
Sodium is dissolved it is to be transferred to the Mixing vessel using the
filter and transfer pump. Similarly Borax is next dissolved with 100 Ltrs of
MEG in the heating vessel and transferred to the mixing vessel after passing
through the filter. Like wise all items from 2-7 are dissolved in MEG and
transferred to the mixing vessel after filtering.
Next items 7 to 12 are all water soluble. They are to be dissolved in
distilled water without heating and transferred to the mixing vessel.
Finally at the last stage the complete charge in the mixing vessel is mixed
for approx 20 mins and filled as per requirements in ½ to 1 ltr
About Antifreeze Coolant
Antifreeze is a cryoprotectant used in internal combustion engines, and for
many other heat transfer applications, such as HVAC chillers and solar water
heaters. The purpose of antifreeze is to prevent a rigid enclosure from
undergoing physical stresses and catastrophic deformation due to the
expansion that occurs when water turns to ice. Compounds are added to the
water to reduce the freezing point of the mixture below the lowest
temperature that the system is likely to be exposed to, and to inhibit
corrosion in cooling systems, which often contain a range of
electrochemically incompatible metals (aluminum, cast iron, copper, lead
The term colligative agent may better describe the benefits of these
compounds in warm climates, since they not only achieve freezing point
depression in the winter when mixed with water, they coincidentally achieve
boiling point elevation of water. Colligative agents are properly referred
to as both antifreeze and "anti-boil" when used for both
properties. The term engine coolant is widely used in the automotive
industry, which covers its primary function of conductive heat transfer.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood
naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH
(often abbreviated MeOH). It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light,
volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor
that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). At room
temperature it is a polar liquid and is used as an antifreeze, solvent,
fuel, and as a denaturant for ethyl alcohol. It is not very popular for
machinery, but it can be found in automotive windshield washer fluid,
de-icers, and gasoline additives to name a few.
Ethylene glycol :
Ethylene glycol solutions became available in 1926 and were marketed as "permanent
antifreeze," since the higher boiling points provided advantages for
summertime use as well as during cold weather. They are still used today for
a wide variety of applications, including automobiles.
Ethylene glycol antifreezes are poisonous and should be kept away from any
person or animal that might be tempted by its sweet taste. In order to
prevent ingestion, a bittering agent (denatonium benzoate) may be added to
engine coolant to make it taste unpleasant. In 2005, a bill was initiated in
the United States Congress that would make mandatory the use of a bittering
agent, but the legislation failed to pass. it is a chemical that prevents
liquid from freezing,such as the antifreeze used in car engines
Propylene glycol :
Propylene glycol, on the other hand, is considerably less toxic and may be
labeled as "non-toxic antifreeze". It is used as antifreeze where
ethylene glycol would be inappropriate, such as in food-processing systems
or in water pipes in homes, as well as numerous other settings. It is also
used in food, medicines, and cosmetics, often as a binding agent. Propylene
glycol is "generally recognized as safe" by the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) for use in food. However, propylene glycol-based
antifreeze should not be considered safe for consumption. In the event of
accidental ingestion, emergency medical services should be contacted
Propylene Glycol oxidizes when exposed to air and heat. When this occurs,
organic acids are formed viz. Glycolic acid, Glyoxalic acid, Formic acid,
Carbonic acid & Oxalic acid. If not properly inhibited, this fluid can
be very corrosive. Protodin is added to Propylene Glycol to act as a buffer,
preventing low pH attack on the system metals. It forms a protective skin
inside the tank and pipelines which helps to prevent acid attack that cause
Beside cooling system breakdown, biological fouling also occurs. Once
bacterial slime starts the corrosion rate of the system increases. In system
where a glycol solution is maintained on a continuous basis, regular
monitoring of freeze protection, pH, specific gravity, inhibitor level,
color and biological contamination should be checked on routine
basis.Propylene glycol should be replaced when it turns reddish in color.
Most commercial antifreeze formulations include corrosion inhibiting
compounds, and a colored dye (commonly a green, red, or blue fluorescent) to
aid in identification. A 1:1 dilution with water is usually used, resulting
in a freezing point in the range of -35 °C to -40 °C, depending on
the formulation. In warmer or colder areas, weaker or stronger dilutions are
used, respectively, but a range of 40%/60% to 60%/40% must be maintained to
assure corrosion protection and optimum freezing prevention.
Glycol antifreeze solutions should generally be replaced with fresh mixture
every two years.
Antifreeze is used in internal combustion engines, and for many other heat
transfer applications, such as electronics cooling and chillers for HVAC.
Compounds are added to water to reduce the freezing point of the mixture to
below the lowest temperature that the system is likely to be exposed to, and
to inhibit corrosion in cooling systems which often contain a range of
electrochemically incompatible metals (aluminum, cast iron, copper, lead
solder, etc.). The term 'colligative agent' is to be preferred as, in warm
climates, the benefit of these compounds is to increase the boiling point of
the coolant, which should then be more properly referred to as 'anti-boil',
and as anti-freeze decreases and increases both properties, respectively,
'colligative agent' more accurately describes the liquid. The term 'engine
coolant' is widely used in industry.
How does antifreeze differ from engine coolant?
Engine coolant is a generic term used to describe fluids that remove heat
from an engine. Antifreeze is a more specific term used to describe products
used to provide protection against freezing. Many people use these terms
Can I add propylene glycol based antifreeze to my existing ethylene
glycol based antifreeze?
Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are chemically very similar and can be
mixed without harming the cooling system. Ethylene glycol does have better
heat transfer properties than propylene glycol. Adding propylene glycol does
not make the ethylene glycol less toxic.
Is it true that cooling system problems are the leading cause of engine
failures? Can using the right antifreeze help?
Yes, cooling system neglect is the leading cause of premature engine
failure. Using the right antifreeze is only part of the solution. Poor water
quality and incorrect dilution are root causes for most cooling system
How often do I need to change my antifreeze?
You should always follow the vehicle or engine manufacturer's
recommendations for antifreeze change intervals and cooling system
What is the difference between ethylene glycol and propylene glycol?
Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are chemically similar. Ethylene
glycol has the chemical formula C2H6O2. Propylene has the chemical formula
C3H8O2. Ethylene glycol has a slightly higher boiling point than propylene
glycol. Ethylene glycol is less expensive to produce and is more widely
used. Propylene glycol is less toxic.